It’s fascinating to study rare species, a job that often involves rewarding detective work. Recently, I’ve been investigating a rare species of moss for COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada).
It’s the mandate of rare species authorities such as COSEWIC to identify species that may be at risk. They contract experts to gather the information needed for them to decide if, and to what degree, those species risk extinction. As the museum’s Botany Curator, I meet these sleuths when they check our collections for information on their target species. And as a status report author for COSEWIC, I’m also often on the trail of target species of my own.
In 2013, I bid, with two co-authors, to write a Status Report on Porter’s Twisted Moss (Tortula porteri). In Canada, Porter’s Twisted Moss grows only in Ontario, only on limestone (and its cousin, dolostone), and only in the province’s most vineyard-rich, warm-wintered regions.
The National Herbarium’s founding curator, John Macoun, picked up the first known Canadian collection of Porter’s Twisted Moss on Pelee Island (almost the southern tip of Ontario) in 1882. Between 1882 and 2013, it was also collected on nearby Middle Island, and on the Niagara Peninsula. The proof comes from voucher specimens in the National Herbarium and other North American collections in the herbarium network.
These specimens helped me and my collaborators to piece together a picture of where, and how abundantly, Porter’s Twisted Moss may have grown over the past 100 years or so. The specimens also helped us to plan a fruitful (and fun) 2014 field search for current information.
With the help of other botanists (the more eyes on the ground and the more local experience the better!), we re-visited places where no moss botanists (a.k.a. bryologists) had collected in 50 years or more. We recorded how much Porter’s Twisted Moss we found (or not), what conditions defined its habitat, and what threats were present.
With a new understanding of its associations and preferences, we pinpointed other areas that seemed likely homes for Porter’s Twisted Moss, and visited them…until it was time to return to the Museum.
It’s back in the lab and the office that the adventure of fieldwork becomes useful to others. We examined the collected specimens, and compiled our fieldwork results and background research on Porter’s Twisted Moss for a COSEWIC Status Report. In spring 2015, a long review period began. All COSEWIC members had a chance to make comments. Now, the report is on the review home stretch, with the third of three rounds underway.
Meanwhile, my colleagues and I on the Mosses and Lichens Species Specialist Subcommittee, along with experts who know the species’ habitats and associated land uses, collaborated in a detailed assessment of threats. Information in the report was scrutinized against the criteria that COSEWIC will eventually use to develop its recommendations, to identify information that needed to be clarified or removed. Finally, we drafted a preliminary recommendation on how the criteria might be applied in the specific case of this little moss.
Sometime soon—probably in April—the reviewed (and re-re-reviewed!) Status Report on Porter’s Twisted Moss will appear on the agenda alongside reports about fish, terrestrial mammals, reptiles and more…all at the “big table” of a COSEWIC Species Assessment Meeting. Thoughtful discussion and a vote will result in a status recommendation. The latest recommendations are always made public in a press release.
Did you know that COSEWIC’s assessment and subcommittee meetings are open to all? In recent years, the autumn meeting has been in Ottawa, and the spring meeting has been held elsewhere in Canada. The dates and locations of upcoming COSEWIC meetings are posted on their website.
Perhaps you’ll get to be a fly on the wall when Porter’s Twisted Moss comes up! The committee asks only that everyone present agree to observe the confidentiality of the discussions, in support of the open discussion required to achieve the best, impartial results.